Nutrient: Calcium

Description:

  • Calcium is a mineral necessary for providing rigidity to the skeleton.
  • It also plays roles in nerve transmission, muscle contraction, and blood clotting.

Reference Values*:

  • Not less than 1000mg per day for adults.6

Food Sources:

  • Milk and milk products
  • Green leafy vegetables
  • Fish with edible bones
  • Soy bean
  • Beancurd

Nutrient: Copper

Description:

  • Copper forms an essential component of enzymes and proteins in the human body.
  • It also involves in many metabolic reactions.

Reference Values*:

Women: Not less than 1.15mg and not more than 10.0 mg per day; Men: Not less than 1.35 mg and not more than 12.0 mg per day.7

Food Sources:

  • Seafoods
  • Offals
  • Legumes
  • Nuts

Nutrient: Iron

Description:

  • Iron is necessary for metabolic functions such as oxygen transport and storage.
  • Insufficient intake may result in iron deficiency anaemia.

Reference Values*:

  • Women: Not less than 24.5mg per day; Men: Not less than 11.4mg per day.6
  • Note:
    • The above values are derived basing on the assumption that the diet is consisting of moderate fish or meat in two main meals daily which is of moderate iron bioavailability.6

Food Sources:

  • Liver and offal
  • Beef
  • Cereals
  • Pulses

Nutrient: Magnesium

Description:

Magnesium plays roles in protein synthesis, enzyme action, normal muscular contraction, nerve transmission, and maintaining bone health.

Reference Values*:

  • Women: Not less than 220mg per day; Men: Not less than 260mg per day.6

Food Sources:

  • Green vegetables
  • Nuts
  • Beans
  • Shellfish

Nutrient: Manganese

Description:

Manganese plays roles in facilitating enzyme functions.

Reference Values*:

  • A safe range of intake has not been proposed by WHO/FAO.6,7

Food Sources:

  • Unrefined cereals
  • Nuts
  • Leafy vegetables
  • Tea

Remarks

 *    The values listed are for reference only. For individual nutrient requirements or with special needs, please consult dietitians or relevant health professionals.

*6 World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. Second edition. Bangkok: WHO/FAO; 2004.

*7 World Health Organization. Trace elements in human nutrition and health. Geneva: WHO; 1996.

(To be continued…)

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